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You see what happened was when someone was crucified, the horizontal beam and the inscription, which was not just an inscription for Jesus, anyone who was crucified by the Romans in those days had at least a papyrus or a piece of wood attached to his neck or attached to the cross detailing the reason why that person was crucified.
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Rachael Kohn: Now how did Helena come to acquire this Titulus, the inscription at the head of the cross?
Carsten Thiede: Well she went to Jerusalem on her pilgrimage to the Holy Land and from the New Testament everyone knew, even in those days the Gospels had all been published, had been accessible before for 300 years by the time of her pilgrimage, so she made inquiries.
And that means the headboard, or as the technical term has it, the Titulus, the inscription on the cross of Jesus, that, if it still existed, or a fragment of it, could be authenticated.
Thats exactly what we found, what we established still existed, today in a church in Rome in Italy, which originally, thats the fascinating thing about it, was the palace of Empress Helena, the mother of Constantine the Great, who is the very person, Helena, who according to tradition, found the cross and headboard in Jerusalem in 328.