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( Adaptive radiation is the evolution from an unspecialised ancestral stock of many different species that adapt to a variety of ecological roles (see books)).Mammals and subsequently humanity may not have become dominant on earth had it not been for the global catastrophe that led to the extinction of the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.Once multicellular organisation became possible as atmospheric oxygen levels rose, the early multicellular organisms rapidly diverged into many adaptive forms.Mass extinction events and an organism's unique adaptations mark the history of evolution, both of which may lead to adaptive radiation.Archaeological geology as a science had to precede the proposal of evolution, as an understanding of the immense age of the earth is necessary to understand evolution.
is heritable) and arises through processes such as mutation and recombination.
africanus (Dart, 1925) (including small brained australopithecines) (see books), H.
erectus (including the Java and Peking hominids - the archetypal Missing Link) and H.
Scientists now have accurate methods (see below ) for dating fossils.
methods rely on characteristic faunal and geological patterns to bracket the period when the fossil existed.
sapiens (including Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon) (see the modern taxonomic classification of humans).