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Men who reported they had never “smoked cigarettes, cigars, or pipes, at least one a day for 1 year's time” were considered to be “never smokers.”Analyses excluded men who reported a history of cancer other than nonmelanoma skin cancer (n = 6119), who reported that they had ever regularly smoked cigarettes or pipes (n= 364 561), or who had unclear or contradictory responses to smoking questions (n= 118). We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to examine the association of cigar smoking and cancer mortality while adjusting for other potential risk factors (9). Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health; 1966.
We adjusted all rate ratio (RR) estimates for age, alcohol use, and use of snuff or chewing tobacco. Smoking in relation to the death rates of one million men and women. Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases.
The ICD-9 codes used to define the tobacco-related cancer outcomes were as follows: lung (162.0-162.9), larynx (161.0-161.9), oral cavity/pharynx (140.0-141.9 and 143.0-149.9, which excludes salivary gland cancer), esophagus (150.0-150.9), bladder (188.0-188.9), and pancreas (157.0-157.9). All Cox models were also adjusted for alcohol use (no regular use, less than one drink per day, one to two drinks per day, three drinks per day, four or more drinks per day) and use of snuff or chewing tobacco (never, former, or current). veterans: report on eight and one-half years of observation. Epidemiological approaches to the study of cancer and other chronic diseases. A small number of men whose level of alcohol consumption could not be determined (n = 312) were not included in the models. Race, educational level, body mass index, diabetes, vitamin supplement use, exercise level, and vegetable/citrus fruit intake were also examined as potential confounders. However, adjustment for these factors had little effect on the risk estimates.
The vital status of study participants was determined for 12 years, through December 31, 1994.